Planning and Cabling Networks
Before using a smart phone, accessing instant messaging, or conducting any number of other interactions over a data network, end devices and intermediary devices must be connected via cable or wireless connections to form a functioning network.
It is this network that will support our communication in the human network.
Each LAN will have a router as its gateway connecting the LAN to other networks. Inside the LAN will be one or more hubs or switches to connect the end devices to the LAN.
A hub as a networking device, receives a signal, regenerates it, and sends the signal over all ports.
The use of hubs creates a logical bus. This means that the LAN uses multiaccess media.
The ports use a shared bandwidth approach and often have reduced performance in the LAN due to collisions and recovery. Although multiple hubs can be interconnected, they remain a single collision domain.
Hubs are less expensive than switches. A hub is typically chosen as an intermediary device within a very small LAN, in a LAN that requires low throughput requirements, or when finances are limited.
A switch receives a frame and regenerates each bit of the frame and sends it to the appropriate destination port.
This device is used to segment a network into multiple collision domains. Unlike the hub, a switch reduces the collisions on a LAN. Each port on the switch creates a separate collision domain. This creates a point-to-point logical topology to the device on each port. Additionally, a switch provides dedicated bandwidth on each port, which can increase LAN performance.
A LAN switch can also be used to interconnect network segments of different speeds.
Routers are the primary devices used to interconnect networks. Each port on a router connects to a different network and routes packets between the networks.
Routers have the ability to break up broadcast domains and collision domains.
Routers are also used to interconnect networks that use different technologies.They can have both LAN and WAN interfaces.
The router’s LAN interfaces allow routers to connect to the LAN media.
This is usually UTP cabling, but modules can be added for using fiber-optics.
Depending on the series or model of router, there can be multiple interface types for connection of LAN and WAN cabling.