What is Static Route ? Static Route Configuration Example

By | 9th November 2015

What is Static Route?

Static routing occurs when you, the network administrator manually add or configure routes on each router interface with IP addresses. This is no simple task, especially when you are administering a large network.
Static routes are most often used to connect to a specific network or to provide a Gateway of Last Resort for a stub network. They can also be used to:

Reduce the number of routes advertised by summarizing several contiguous networks as one static route
Create a backup route in case a primary route link fails

In as much as it’s a complex task, there are benefits of static routes:

i.     Bandwidth usage between router is at a minimum, none in some cases.

ii.   There is no overhead on the router CPU.

 iii.  It adds security due to the choice of route configuration by the administrator.

iv.  It reduces the number of routes found in the routing table.

Disadvantages of Static Routes:

i.   Takes too many man-hours for configuration especially in a large network.

ii.  Too complex and can sometimes be confusing during troubleshooting.

       III.  Administrator intervention is required to maintain changing route information.
IV.  Does not scale well with growing networks; maintenance becomes cumbersome.
V. Requires complete knowledge of the whole network for proper implementation.

When to Use Static Routes 

Static routing has 3 primary uses:

i. Providing simple routing table maintenance in smaller networks that aren’t expected to grow considerably.
ii. Routing to and from stub networks. A stub network is a network accessed by a single route, and also the router has just one neighbor.
iii. Using a single default route to represent a path to any network that doesn’t have an additional specific match with another route within the routing table. Default routes are accustomed send traffic to any destination beyond the next upstream router.

Static Router command syntax: ip

Ip route {destination network address} {mask}  {next hop address or exit interface}

We will use the following network topology as an example. All necessary interfaces had been configured with IP address.




staticroute

Remember the Static Router command syntax:

ip route {destination network address} {mask}  {next hop address or exit interface}

Static Route configuration on HQ router:

HQ(config)#ip route 172.16.10.0 255.255.255.0 10.10.11.2

HQ(config)#interface serial 0/0/0

HQ(config-if)#clock rate 64000

HQ(config-if)#end

HQ#

Command syntax explained from the example configuration above:

 ip route: this command creates the static route and tells the router that this is a static route.

172.16.10.0: This is the remote network we want to send the packet to.

255.255.255.0: This is the mask of the remote network.

10.10.11.2: this is the next hop router address we are sending the packet to.

 Here, the exit interface could be used in the place of next-hop address:

HQ(config)#ip route 172.16.10.0 255.255.255.0 se0/0/0

HQ(config)#end

Verify your configuration from the routing table:

HQ#show ip route

[output omitted]

     10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets

C       10.10.11.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0

     172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets

S       172.16.10.0 [1/0] via 10.10.11.2

C    192.168.30.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

HQ#

The represents the static route with the administrative distance of 1. The router gives priority to static routes over dynamic routes, where 0is best and 255 is worst!




To verify the connectivity, Ping from PC 1 to PC 5

PC1

PC1>ping 172.16.10.2

Pinging 172.16.10.2 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 172.16.10.2: bytes=32 time=140ms TTL=126

Reply from 172.16.10.2: bytes=32 time=140ms TTL=126

Reply from 172.16.10.2: bytes=32 time=156ms TTL=126

Reply from 172.16.10.2: bytes=32 time=156ms TTL=126

Ping statistics for 172.16.10.2:

Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),

Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:

 Minimum = 140ms, Maximum = 156ms, Average = 148ms

Also, Ping from PC 7 to PC 3

PC7>ping 192.168.30.4

Pinging 192.168.30.4 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.30.4: bytes=32 time=156ms TTL=126

Reply from 192.168.30.4: bytes=32 time=156ms TTL=126

Reply from 192.168.30.4: bytes=32 time=109ms TTL=126

Reply from 192.168.30.4: bytes=32 time=135ms TTL=126

Ping statistics for 192.168.30.4:

    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),

Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:

Minimum = 109ms, Maximum = 156ms, Average = 139ms

PC7>

How to Configure Default Routes

RIP v2

IPv6 Explained

EIGRPv6

RIPv6 or RIPng

OSPFv3

DHCPv6




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