Category Archives: IP Routing Protocols

Cisco Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) Explained

Understanding Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) The Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) is a Cisco proprietary protocol that is automatically enabled on Catalyst 2960 and Catalyst 3560 Series switches. DTP is used to negotiate forming a trunk link between two or more Cisco devices before actually forming the trunk connection. The main benefit of DTP is to increase traffic on a… Read More »

RIP Routing Loop Explained

Split Horizon, Route Poisoning and Holddown Explained Split Horizon RIP as a distance vector protocols is also susceptible to routing loops (network problem which enable a data packet to continually being routed through the same routers over and over. The data packets continue to be routed within the network in an endless circle.) . Split horizon is one… Read More »

What is Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP)?

Understanding LLDP and LLDP-MED The smooth running operation of the various networking devices in a LAN or switched network means that all protocols and applications are enabled and that all devices and are configured correctly. However, the larger the network gets, the more difficult it will be for the network administrator to control, manage and sort out configuration problems. This… Read More »

PPP: What is CHAP? Explained with Examples

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is more secure than PAP. It involves a three-way exchange of a shared secret. During link establishment, CHAP conducts periodic challenges to make sure that the remote host still has a valid password value. While PAP basically stops working once authentication is established, this leaves the network vulnerable to… Read More »

What is GLBP? Explained with Examples

Understanding Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP) Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP) is a Cisco proprietary solution for redundancy and load balancing in an IP network. GLBP allow automatic selection and simultaneous recovery from first hop router failures. GLBP provides load balancing over multiple (router) gateways using a single virtual IP address and multiple virtual MAC addresses.  Each host… Read More »

Ways To Migrate To IPv6 Explained

Before now, most networks; if not all, runs on IPv4 infrastructure, especially if your network is using old routers and switches. To upgrade your network to be IPv6 compliant, one or two strategies listed below can be used to implement this process on your network. 1. Dual Stacking: This method of migration enables a network to run both IPv4… Read More »

What is IPv6? Explained with Examples

What is IPv6? IPv6 is the next generation of IP addressing or Internet Protocol. The previous version of IP addressing (IPv4) is depleted or near depletion. IPv6 was created by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a standards body, as a replacement to IPv4 in 1998. However, IPv6 is equipped with so much improved features and limitless opportunities… Read More »

What is BGP? Explained with Examples

Understanding Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) BGP is a complex, advanced distance Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP), BGP exchange routing information between Autonomous Systems (ASs). Unlike Interior routing protocols such as RIP, EIGRP, and OSPF that run inside a company’s network, BGP uses a Best Path Selection Algorithm (BPSA) to choose and install the best routes into the router’s routing table.… Read More »

What is EIGRP? Explained with Examples

EIGRP Overview EIGRP is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol loosely based on their original IGRP (Interior Routing Protocol). EIGRP is an advanced distance-vector routing protocol, it  can only use it in an all-Cisco network, but EIGRP more than makes up for this deficiency by being easy to configure, fast, and reliable. Like RIP, EIGRP is based on a distance… Read More »

What is eBGP? Explained with Examples

External Border Gateway Protocol (eBGP) is a BGP term or process used when refering to BGP peers or neighbors that are in a different Autonomous System and Number (ASN). In other words, eBGP is used to exchange route information between different autonomous systems. When only one link connects two autonomous systems, the IP addresses of the connected interfaces are… Read More »