Category Archives: WANs

Cisco Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) Explained

Understanding Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) The Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) is a Cisco proprietary protocol that is automatically enabled on Catalyst 2960 and Catalyst 3560 Series switches. DTP is used to negotiate forming a trunk link between two or more Cisco devices before actually forming the trunk connection. The main benefit of DTP is to increase traffic on a… Read More »

What is Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP)?

Understanding LLDP and LLDP-MED The smooth running operation of the various networking devices in a LAN or switched network means that all protocols and applications are enabled and that all devices and are configured correctly. However, the larger the network gets, the more difficult it will be for the network administrator to control, manage and sort out configuration problems. This… Read More »

How to Cable LANs and WANs

Cabling LANs and WANs. When planning the installation of LAN cabling, choosing the cables necessary to make a successful LAN or WAN connection requires consideration of the different media types. There are many different Physical layer implementations that support multiple media types: • UTP (Category 5, 5e, 6, and 7) • Fiber-optics • Wireless Each media type has… Read More »

PPP: What is CHAP? Explained with Examples

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is more secure than PAP. It involves a three-way exchange of a shared secret. During link establishment, CHAP conducts periodic challenges to make sure that the remote host still has a valid password value. While PAP basically stops working once authentication is established, this leaves the network vulnerable to… Read More »

Ways To Migrate To IPv6 Explained

Before now, most networks; if not all, runs on IPv4 infrastructure, especially if your network is using old routers and switches. To upgrade your network to be IPv6 compliant, one or two strategies listed below can be used to implement this process on your network. 1. Dual Stacking: This method of migration enables a network to run both IPv4… Read More »

What is Wide Area Network? – WAN Explained with Examples

When an  individual Company or Organization has locations that are separated by large geographical distances, it will be a matter of necessity to connect these individual locations so as to share, exchange and manager data or communication. To achieve this, the organisation needs a Telecommunication Service Provider (TSP) to interconnect the LANs at the different locations. Telecommunications Service Providers manage… Read More »

What is IPv6? Explained with Examples

What is IPv6? IPv6 is the next generation of IP addressing or Internet Protocol. The previous version of IP addressing (IPv4) is depleted or near depletion. IPv6 was created by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a standards body, as a replacement to IPv4 in 1998. However, IPv6 is equipped with so much improved features and limitless opportunities… Read More »

What is BGP? Explained with Examples

Understanding Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) BGP is a complex, advanced distance Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP), BGP exchange routing information between Autonomous Systems (ASs). Unlike Interior routing protocols such as RIP, EIGRP, and OSPF that run inside a company’s network, BGP uses a Best Path Selection Algorithm (BPSA) to choose and install the best routes into the router’s routing table.… Read More »

What is Frame Relay? Explained with Examples

Frame Relay –  WAN Connection. Frame Relay is a popular high performance WAN protocol that operates at the physical and data link layers of the OSI reference model. Frame relay is a type of WAN connection use to connect one site to many remote sites through a single physical circuit, this operation makes it easy to construct reliable… Read More »

How Frame Relay works Explained with Examples

In Frame Relay implementation, the connection between a DTE (router) device and a DCE (Frame Relay switch) device consists of both a physical layer component and a link layer component: i.  The physical component defines the mechanical and electrical specifications for the connection between the devices. ii. The link layer component defines the protocol that establishes the connection… Read More »